Intermediate

Preposiciones ACON, DEEN 

Estas preposiciones tienen los siguientes usos:
These prepositions are used in the following contexts:

1. Dirección Direction
    Luis va a la oficina.
   
Luis goes to the office.

2. Tiempo Time
    A las dos salgo de clase.
    I get out of class at 2 o'clock.

CON 
1. Compañía Company
    Estoy con él.
   
I'm with him.

2. Instrumento Instrument
    Él escribe con bolígrafo negro.
    He writes with a black pen.

DE
1. Procedencia Being or coming from somewhere
    Pepe viene de clase
    Pepe comes from class.

    Luis es de España.
    Luis is from Spain.

2. Tiempo Time
    ¿Qué hora es? Son las dos de la tarde.
    What time is it?
It's 2 o'clock in the afternoon.

3. Propiedad Property
    El libro es de Juan.
    It's Juan's book.

4. Materia Material
    La mesa es de madera.
    The table is (made of) wood.

 EN 

1. Lugar donde se está Place where we are
    Estamos en Salamanca.
   
We're in Salamanca.

2. Dentro de Inside
    Las llaves están en el bolso.
    The keys are in the bag.

3. Medio de transporte Transportation
    Voy a clase en metro.
    I go to class on the subway.

4. Tiempo Time
    En verano hace calor en Cádiz.
    In summer, it's hot in Cadiz.


EXPRESSING LIKES AND DISLIKES

GUSTAR

To express your likes and dislikes, use the verb gustar, meaning “to please or give pleasure”, in the construction:

Indirect object pronoun + gustar + subject

(Yo)                 Me
(Tú)                  Te                  gusta   + singular noun or one or more infinitives
(Él)                    Le                  gustan +  plural noun
(Nosotros)     Nos
(Ustedes)       Les
(Ellos)             Les

Me gustan las canciones románticas.
I like romantic songs.

Les gusta ese cantante español?
Do they like that Spanish singer?

Note that:
  • The indirect object of the verb gustar is the person, who likes something. The indirect object pronouns (me, te, le, nos, os, les) represent the person.

  • The subject of the verb gustar is the person, thing, or activity that the person likes.

Since the indirect object pronouns le and les each have several different meanings, these pronouns are often clarified. With the verb gustar, the structure a + person usually precedes the indirect object pronoun that it is clarifying.

A mis padres les gusta ver películas extranjeras.
My parents like to see foreign films.

A mi hermano no le gustan esas películas.
My brother does not like those films.

It is also possible:

  • To clarify le or les by placing (a él, a ella, a ud., a ellos, a ellas, a uds.) before them.

A él le gusta dormir pero a ella le gusta levantarse temprano.
He likes to sleep but she likes to get up early.

  • To emphasize me, te, nos, or os by placing a mí, a ti, a nosotros(as) a vosotros(as) before them.

A tí te gusta leer revistas pero a mí me gusta leer periódicos.
You like to read magazines but I like to read newspapers.

Notice that the subject of the verb gustar can be a person, an activity, or a thing. When the subject is an activity, the verb gustar, is always in the third person singular (gusta) and is followed by an infinitive.

Nos gusta visitar los museos.
We like to visit the museums.

When the subject of the verb gustar is a person or thing, use:
  • The third person singular (gusta), if the subject of gustar is singular.

Me gusta la profesora de español pero no me gusta el libro.
I like the Spanish teacher but I do not like the book.

  • The third person plural (gustan), if the subject of gustar is plural.

Me gustan las clases de ciencia pero no me gustan los profesores.
I like the science classes but I do not like the teachers.

Remember that the subject pronouns it and they (when referring to things) do not exist in Spanish. When the subject of the verb gustar is a thing, it cannot be replaced by a pronoun, it is understood.

The gusta los sandwiches de queso?. Sí, me gustan.
Do you like cheese sandwiches? Yes, I like them.

In the question above, the subject of the verb gustar is los sandwiches de queso. In the answer, the subject is understood.

VERBS LIKE GUSTAR. The following verbs are used in the same construction as gustar: (indirect object pronoun + verb + subject).

 Doler---to hurt                                     Importar---to matter
 Me duele la cabeza.                             A él no le importa el programa.
 Encantar---to be very fond of          Interesar---to interest
 a person or thing                                 Me interesa el partido.
 Nos encanta  la comida francesa.     Preocupar---to worry
 Faltar---to need, lack                        ¿Te preocupa el problema?
 ¿Qué te falta?                                      Quedar---to be left

 What do you need?                              A ellos les quedan dos dólares.